The Paw Print Genetics Blog

COVID 19 and Your Pets

COVID 19 and Your Pets

By Robert Westra

With the COVID -19 Pandemic creating many challenges today, we thought we would provide information to help you understand the condition and reduce any risk to you or your furry family members.

A novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China in 2019. The illness caused by this virus has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

The Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department of Hong Kong reported on March 4th, 2020 a pet dog had repeatedly tested weak positive for SARS-CoV-2.  This is consistent with a low level of infection.  The transmission was most likely human to animal, as the dog lived with a human that tested positive for the virus.  The pet was quarantined for 14 days and never developed clinical signs. Sadly, the pet passed away shortly after its quarantine from unrelated causes. 

Although this case is concerning, we don’t really know if SARS-CoV-2 can infect dogs, cats and other animals.  The World Health Organization stated there is no evidence at present that dogs and cats can be infected with the SARS-CoV-2 ...

For The Veterinarian: The Genetics of Shortened Limbs and the Association with Canine Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)

For The Veterinarian: The Genetics of Shortened Limbs and the Association with Canine Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)

Shortened legs are a major defining feature for some of today’s most popular domestic dog breeds. Although dogs with extreme shortening of the limbs likely come to mind when pondering this trait (such as dachshunds or basset hounds), many other breeds also display a more subtle or moderate limb shortening (e.g. West Highland white terrier, Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever, beagle). Unfortunately, in some breeds, dogs with shortened legs have also been found to be at an increased risk for early-onset intervertebral disc disease (IVDD). However, over the past several years, genetic discoveries and development of genetic testing have made it possible to better understand the short-legged appearance of some dog breeds and the genetic underpinnings which make some of these dogs more likely to develop IVDD.

Shortened Legs and Genetic Link to Intervertebral Disc Disease

Two genetic mutations associated with shorter limb length have been reported in domestic dogs2,4,5. Both mutations consist of a duplicated section of the canine FGF4 gene (called an FGF4-retrogene) which has been inserted into two aberrant locations of the genome; one copy has been inserted into a region on chromosome 12 (CFA12 FGF4 insertion) and the other copy has ...

New Year - New Swabs!

New Year - New Swabs!

   At Paw Print Genetics, quality and accuracy are at the heart of everything we do. When it comes to the sample collection on your dog that is used to extract DNA, we continue to hold ourselves to this standard. We have recently changed our cheek cell collection method to a new preferred swab. We believe that this new swab will not only allow us to achieve higher quality DNA from your dog, but it will also make your life more convenient. You may notice these swabs have a few differences…

1. One swab does the job

This new swabbing method will now only involve swabbing your dog’s cheek one time, rather than 3 separate times with different swabs. By using this single swab, we are now able to collect more than enough cells to get the DNA that we need.To collect enough cells, be sure to swab your dog for a slow count of 30. This is super important given that you only get once chance, with one swab, to get enough sample for us. It is our goal is that using a single swab will make the swabbing process simple and easy!

 

2. New look & ...

The Genetics of Shortened Limbs and the Association with Canine Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)

The Genetics of Shortened Limbs and the Association with Canine Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)

Shortened legs are a major defining feature for some of today’s most popular domestic dog breeds. Although dogs with extreme shortening of the limbs likely come to mind when pondering this trait (such as dachshunds or basset hounds), many other breeds also display a more subtle or moderate limb shortening (e.g. West Highland white terrier, Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever, beagle). Unfortunately, in some breeds, dogs with shortened legs have also been found to be at an increased risk for early-onset intervertebral disc disease (IVDD). However, over the past several years, genetic discoveries and development of genetic testing have made it possible to better understand the short-legged appearance of some dog breeds and the genetic underpinnings which make some of these dogs more likely to develop IVDD.

Intervertebral Discs and the Spinal Cord

In order to understand IVDD, we must first understand the role, location, and structure of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) and their anatomical relationship to the spinal cord. IVDs play a crucial role as cartilaginous ‘shock absorbers’ for the spine and allow for spinal flexibility. IVDs are often compared to a ‘jelly doughnut’ sitting between the vertebrae as they are composed of an outer ring of tough ...

Genetic Health Screening, the Canine HealthCheck, and Benefits for Veterinary Practice

Genetic Health Screening, the Canine HealthCheck, and Benefits for Veterinary Practice

The impact of canine genetic testing on veterinary medicine continues to grow as dog owners become increasingly interested in the genetic factors underlying their dogs’ health and how knowledge of these factors may improve the lives of their furry companions. Genetic screening tools which test for large numbers of deleterious genetic mutations, such as the Canine HealthCheck (CHC) developed by Paw Print Genetics (PPG), are particularly useful when performed on a young dog to identify specific inherited health concerns; especially in cases where the lineage of the dog is unknown.

Early Screening, Faster Diagnosis

Among the tests performed on the CHC are disease tests which may prove invaluable in decreasing client costs associated with diagnosis, increasing speed of diagnosis, or improving medical outcomes. For example, many tests included on the CHC, such as the test for the neurological disease, degenerative myelopathy (DM) are adult-onset conditions which may not be observed in a dog until it has reached late adulthood. DM is a progressive disease caused by a genetic mutation in the canine SOD1 gene which can only be definitively diagnosed after death through histologic examination of the spinal cord because antemortem diagnostic methods fail to yield pathognomonic results. In addition ...

Merging Science and Art: Using Genetic Testing to Produce the Seven Standard Great Dane Coat Colors and Patterns

Merging Science and Art: Using Genetic Testing to Produce the Seven Standard Great Dane Coat Colors and Patterns

Canine coat color and traits are determined by the interaction of multiple genes, each responsible for a specific inherited trait or characteristic. The development of genetic testing for these traits has resulted in a significant paradigm shift from historical breeding practices for the dog breeding community. With a few exceptions for colors or patterns that cannot yet be tested for, genetic coat color testing has eliminated the need to perform test breedings or to make assumptions when it comes to determining what coat colors and traits might be produced by a specific breeding pair.

Genetic Coat Color Testing Basics

Despite its power, the use of genetic testing does not eliminate the artistry of dog breeding or the advantages that come from experience. Instead, genetic testing assists in eliminating some of the challenges that biology presents. Regardless of a breeder’s experience level, colors or traits that are inherited in a recessive fashion can present significant challenges when it comes to predicting potential coat color breeding outcomes. Recessive traits are those that require a dog to inherit two copies of the associated genetic variant (one from each parent) in order to display that trait. The challenge with recessive traits is that dogs ...

New Test for Golden Retrievers - Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 5 (NCL5)

New Test for Golden Retrievers - Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 5 (NCL5)

As part of our commitment to raising the standard in canine genetic disease testing, the team at Paw Print Genetics works hard to assess the validity of genetic mutations published in the medical literature and to develop new disease tests based upon this information. The most recent test to be added to our extensive disease testing menu is for a disease known to be inherited in golden retrievers called   neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 5.

What is neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 5?

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited neurological disease belonging to a group of diseases called lysosomal storage diseases. There are multiple types of NCL, each given a number designation based upon the specific gene in which the associated genetic mutation is found. For example, dogs diagnosed with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 5 (NCL5) have inherited a genetic mutation in the canine CLN5 gene. Although there are multiple dog breeds known to inherit NCL5 due to mutations in this gene, the specific mutation responsible for this disease in golden retrievers has only been found in this breed; thus, making testing for NCL5 in golden retrievers breed-specific.

What do the symptoms include?

Dogs affected with NCL5 are born with a deficiency of a ...

The Veterinarian's Corner: Incorrectly Recorded Canine Parentage and the Effect on Genetic Health

The Veterinarian's Corner: Incorrectly Recorded Canine Parentage and the Effect on Genetic Health

Over the past two decades, usage of genetic testing technologies has revolutionized the world of dog breeding. Once limited to selective breeding practices based upon the characteristics or disease states that could be physically observed in a dog, genetic testing has allowed dog breeders to uncover the inherited genetic variants (mutations) that are not being expressed in an individual but may be expressed in their offspring. By comparing the disease-associated mutations inherited by a dog to those of a prospective mate, informed breeding decisions can be made to avoid producing puppies with these diseases. However, despite the immense value of genetic disease testing in the production of healthy puppies, incorrect assumptions about the parentage of a litter can have disastrous consequences for the health of a kennel, even when parental genetic disease testing results are 100% accurate.

Clear by Parentage/Hereditary Clear

In ideal situations, potential dams and sires are tested for breed-specific, disease-associated genetic mutations prior to being bred. If both parents are found to be free of these mutations (often referred to as being “clear”), it can be assumed for practical purposes that the offspring are also clear of the same mutations. With this understanding, it is common ...

Knowledge is Power in Dog Breeding

Knowledge is Power in Dog Breeding

I was recently contacted by a friend who is looking to buy a new puppy and wanted to make sure that the parents had been tested, and if not, that the prospective puppy had been tested for all of the genetic disease that are found in that breed.  When she asked the breeder if testing had been done, the answer was “no”. When she asked if she could have a sample sent to Paw Print Genetics prior to buying the puppy, the breeder promptly returned her deposit and said that the puppy was no longer available. Although feeling devastated, my friend knew that she was asking the right questions. After all, she is looking for a new family member!

Was the breeder hiding something or just simply afraid of what she might find if she were to do genetic testing?  We won’t know the answer, but I think a lot of what keeps some breeders from testing is fear of the unknown.  What if they find something in their lines?  Will they be stuck with dogs that they can’t sell?  Will others think that they have “bad” dogs?  Actually, doing genetic testing will increase ...

The Veterinarian’s Corner: Variable Disease Presentation and How Genetic Testing Can Help

The Veterinarian’s Corner: Variable Disease Presentation and How Genetic Testing Can Help

Every veterinarian leaves veterinary school with a mental laundry list of animal diseases and their textbook presentations. While this knowledge serves the young graduate well in most circumstances, with clinical experience and mentorship comes the ability for veterinarians to expand their mental notes about the various ways some diseases can present in the real world. For some inherited canine diseases, genetic testing has allowed the practitioner to correlate a broader set of clinical signs for dogs affected by identical underlying genetic mutations. This variability in disease phenotype, known as variable expressivity, is a result of the combined effect of all genetic and environmental factors influencing each individual and can add significant challenge to some diagnoses. However, supplementing a disease workup with genetic test results can prove invaluable in diagnosing inherited diseases that have the frustrating attribute of rarely presenting the same way twice.

Collie Eye Anomaly

Now known to occur in well over a dozen breeds, the recessively inherited collie eye anomaly or CEA (also known as choroidal hypoplasia) is a relatively common eye disease of dogs and a good example of a disorder which can have diagnostic challenges due to its phenotypic variability. CEA is caused by a deletion ...