Cystinuria (Labrador retriever type) is an inherited disease affecting kidney function in dogs. The SLC3A1 gene codes for a protein that allows the kidneys to transport cystine and other amino acids from the urine. Normal kidneys reabsorb the Amino Acid cystine so that only small amounts pass into the urine, while dogs with mutations of both copies of the SLC3A1 gene fail to reabsorb cystine allowing large amounts to pass into the urine, hence the name cystinuria. Cystine can form crystals and/or stones in the urinary tract, which can block the ureters or Urethra and stop the normal flow of urine. Affected male dogs typically present with symptoms related to cysteine bladder stones at 6 to 14 months of age, however female dogs tend to develop symptoms later than males. Symptoms of disease include straining to urinate, frequent urination of small volumes or inability to urinate. In Labrador retrievers, males and females are equally affected with excess cysteine in the urine, but obstruction of urine flow is more common in males due to differences in anatomy and females tend to develop stones about a year later than males on average. Dogs with cystinuria often have recurrent inflammation of the urinary tract and if not treated, urinary stones can cause urinary tract infections, kidney failure and even death.